Giza and Saqqara(Egypt), Gazing on ancient times

Giza and Saqqara are two of the most famous archaeological sites in Egypt. These ancient wonders draw millions of tourists every year, all eager to explore the history and culture of this incredible country. From the Great Pyramids of Giza to the Step Pyramid of Djoser, Giza and Saqqara offer a glimpse into the rich history of Egypt. In this article, we will explore the history of these sites, how to get there, the top sights to see, and the delicious cuisine that can be found in the surrounding areas.


Giza and Saqqara have played a significant role in Egypt’s history for thousands of years. The Great Pyramids of Giza, located on the outskirts of Cairo, are the last remaining wonder of the ancient world. Built more than 4,500 years ago, these massive structures were constructed as tombs for the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.

Saqqara, located 30 kilometers south of Cairo, was also an important site for the ancient Egyptians. It is home to the Step Pyramid of Djoser, the oldest pyramid in Egypt, which was built more than 4,600 years ago. The site was also a necropolis for the ancient city of Memphis and is home to dozens of tombs and pyramids.

Over the centuries, both Giza and Saqqara have been subject to looting and destruction. However, efforts have been made to preserve these incredible sites, and they continue to be a testament to the incredible engineering skills of the ancient Egyptians.

How to Get There

Giza and Saqqara are both easily accessible from Cairo, Egypt’s capital city. The most convenient way to get to these sites is by taxi or private car, which can be arranged through most hotels or travel agencies. It is also possible to take public transportation, such as the bus or metro, but these options can be crowded and confusing for first-time visitors.

For those who prefer a more organized experience, there are many tour companies that offer guided tours of Giza and Saqqara. These tours often include transportation, entry fees, and a knowledgeable guide who can provide insights into the history and culture of these sites.

Sights to See

  1. Great Pyramids of Giza

The Great Pyramids of Giza are the most famous sight in Egypt, and perhaps the world. These massive structures are made of limestone and granite and are the last remaining wonder of the ancient world. Visitors can climb to the top of the pyramids for incredible views of the surrounding desert, or explore the interior chambers where the pharaohs were buried.

  1. Sphinx

The Sphinx is a massive statue that stands guard over the Great Pyramids of Giza. This iconic symbol of ancient Egypt is carved from a single block of limestone and is believed to represent the pharaoh Khafre.

  1. Saqqara Necropolis

The Saqqara Necropolis is a vast burial ground that contains dozens of tombs and pyramids. The most famous sight in Saqqara is the Step Pyramid of Djoser, the oldest pyramid in Egypt. Visitors can also explore the tombs of the nobles, which contain intricate carvings and decorations.

  1. Memphis

The ancient city of Memphis was the capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can explore the ruins of the city, including the temple of Ptah and the statue of Ramses II.

  1. Egyptian Museum

Located in Cairo, the Egyptian Museum is home to thousands of artifacts from ancient Egypt, including the treasures of King Tutankhamun. Visitors can see mummies, statues, and other artifacts that provide a glimpse into the culture and history of this incredible civilization.

One of the most striking features of Saqqara is the Step Pyramid of Djoser, which was built around 4,700 years ago and is the oldest surviving stone monument in the world. Designed by the architect Imhotep, the Step Pyramid was built as the burial tomb of Pharaoh Djoser and marks a significant development in ancient Egyptian architecture. The pyramid stands at 62 meters (203 feet) tall and is made up of six steps, each decreasing in size as they ascend. Visitors can explore the complex around the pyramid, which includes a large courtyard, several smaller pyramids, and the remains of the pharaoh’s palace and temples.

Another highlight of Saqqara is the Mastaba of Ti, which dates back to around 2,500 BCE and was built as the tomb of a high-ranking official in the royal court. The Mastaba of Ti is notable for its well-preserved reliefs and paintings, which offer a fascinating glimpse into the life and customs of the ancient Egyptians. Visitors can admire intricate depictions of daily life, such as farming, fishing, and weaving, as well as scenes from the afterlife, including the weighing of the heart ceremony.

Saqqara also contains the Serapeum, an underground complex of tombs that housed the mummified remains of sacred Apis bulls. These bulls were believed to be the embodiment of the god Ptah and were mummified and buried with great ceremony. Visitors can explore the underground tunnels and chambers of the Serapeum, which contain dozens of massive sarcophagi, each weighing up to 60 tons.

Giza, located just a short drive from Saqqara, is home to some of the most iconic landmarks in Egypt, including the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest of the three pyramids in the complex and is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Built as the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu around 4,500 years ago, the Great Pyramid stands at 147 meters (481 feet) tall and is composed of over 2.3 million stone blocks, each weighing several tons. Visitors can enter the pyramid and climb up a steep and narrow corridor to reach the burial chamber, where the pharaoh’s sarcophagus once rested.

Near the Great Pyramid is the Pyramid of Khafre, which stands at 136 meters (446 feet) tall and is distinguished by its well-preserved capstone. The Pyramid of Menkaure, the smallest of the three pyramids, stands at 65 meters (213 feet) tall and is notable for its intricate detailing and the use of red granite.

Another must-see attraction in Giza is the Sphinx, a massive limestone statue of a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. The Sphinx is believed to have been built during the reign of Pharaoh Khafre and is thought to represent the king’s strength and power. Visitors can walk around the base of the Sphinx and marvel at its impressive size and intricate details.

After a day of exploring the wonders of Giza and Saqqara, visitors can indulge in some of the delicious cuisine of Egypt. One popular dish is koshari, a hearty vegetarian dish made with rice, lentils, chickpeas, and pasta, topped with a spicy tomato sauce and crispy fried onions. Another must-try dish is ful medames, a savory stew made with fava beans, garlic, and lemon juice, served with flatbread and a variety of toppings.

Visitors to Giza and Saqqara can easily reach the sites by taxi, bus, or guided tour. The sites can get crowded during peak tourist season, so it is best to arrive early in the morning to beat the crowds and avoid

In Saqqara, visitors can also see the Serapeum, which is a massive underground complex where the mummified remains of the Apis bulls were stored. These bulls were considered sacred and were worshipped as manifestations of the god Ptah. The Serapeum contains long corridors with massive granite sarcophagi that weigh up to 80 tons each, and the precision with which they were carved is truly astounding.

Apart from the ancient attractions, Saqqara is also famous for its bustling marketplaces where visitors can buy a variety of traditional goods, such as handmade jewelry, pottery, and textiles. The marketplaces are a great place to mingle with the locals and get a taste of everyday Egyptian life.


Egyptian cuisine is a blend of flavors from the Middle East and the Mediterranean, and it offers a wide range of dishes that are sure to tantalize the taste buds. One of the most popular dishes is koshary, which is a mixture of rice, pasta, lentils, and chickpeas, topped with a tomato-based sauce and fried onions. Another famous dish is ful medames, which is a stew made from fava beans that is often eaten for breakfast.

Visitors can also indulge in a variety of sweet treats such as baklava, a sweet pastry made from layers of phyllo dough, honey, and nuts. A popular drink in Egypt is hibiscus tea, which is made from dried hibiscus flowers and has a tart and refreshing flavor.


Giza and Saqqara are two of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt, offering visitors a glimpse into the ancient history and culture of this remarkable country. From the iconic pyramids of Giza to the vast necropolis of Saqqara, there is no shortage of fascinating attractions to explore.

To get the most out of a visit to Giza and Saqqara, it is recommended to hire a knowledgeable guide who can provide insights and context to the sites. Visitors should also be prepared for the hot and dry weather, and should dress appropriately for the cultural and religious sites.

Whether you are a history buff or simply interested in exploring the wonders of ancient Egypt, Giza and Saqqara are not to be missed. And with the delicious cuisine and friendly locals, it is sure to be an unforgettable experience for all.

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